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Country-level Social Cost of Carbon


The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a commonly employed metric of the expected economic damages expected from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although useful in an optimal policy context, a world-level approach obscures the heterogeneous geography of climate damage and vast differences in country-level contributions to the global SCC, as well as climate and socio-economic uncertainties, which are larger at the regional level. Here we estimate country-level contributions to the SCC using recent climate model projections, empirical climate-driven economic damage estimations and socio-economic projections. Central specifications show high global SCC values (median, $417 per tonne of CO2 (tCO2); 66% confidence intervals, US$177–805 per tCO2) and a country-level SCC that is unequally distributed. However, the relative ranking of countries is robust to different specifications: countries that incur large fractions of the global cost consistently include India, China, Saudi Arabia and the United States.

In Nature Climate Change.


This paper has a repository at

Online explorer

In this study, we have generated the Social Cost of Carbon of all countries using different socio-economic, climatic or damage assumptions. This is a large database. So, I developed an online interactive tool to explore it. This tool is available at

The Country-level Social Cost of Carbon explorer

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